Captain John Smith created the first detailed map of the Chesapeake Region. His masterpiece map of Virginia, published in 1612, remained in active use for seven decades and opened this part of North America to European exploration, settlement, and trade. The geographical accuracy is astounding given that Smith traveled about 2500 miles in a series of short expeditions and had only primitive mapmaking tools to work with.
Smith’s map records not only the geographic features of the Chesapeake, but also its cultural aspects, including more than 200 Indian towns. Many of the place names remain in use today.
Together with his journals, Captain John Smith’s map provides an unparalleled record of what the Chesapeake was like four centuries ago.
Captain John Smith’s mission in undertaking his 1607-09 Chesapeake voyages was to explore the region, find riches, and locate a navigable route to the Pacific. Making maps and claiming land for England was fundamental to his goals and to the entire Jamestown colony.
Captain John Smith’s 1612 map shows:
As they sailed, Captain John Smith and his crew wrote notes, made sketches, and used a compass and quadrant to record locations. They also gathered information from Indians they met along the way. Smith compiled the information in Jamestown in 1608 and sent an early map back to England. This first map fell into Spanish hands and became known as the “Zuñiga map.”
In the 1600s, determining exact geographic locations was difficult because of primitive navigational devices. Captain John Smith probably used a compass in conjunction with a speed measuring device to see how far they had traveled from a given point. Latitude was estimated with a quadrant but there was as yet no way to determine longitude.
Three years after Smith returned to England in 1609, he prepared and published the definitive version of his map in 1612. Some scholars question whether the differences between Smith’s 1612 map and the 1608 version credited to Zuñiga are corrections or are embellishments made by Smith working from memory several years after the fact.
Captain John Smith gathered considerable information for his map from the Indians he met on his voyages. He appears to have had an unusual ability to build relationships with them despite the completely different cultural mindsets of Europeans and American Indians. Smith learned some of the local Algonquian language during 1607 and could converse with many of the people he met.
Captain John Smith’s map contains illustrations of Powhatan’s council and of a powerful Susquehannock Indian. It also records more than 200 Indian towns, spelling out their place names phonetically. Many of these names remain in use today.
Captain John Smith was careful to distinguish between places he had seen and those he learned about from the Native Americans. On his map, he used cross symbols to indicate the boundaries of the areas he had seen for himself. He gave this explanation of the crosses shown on the 1612 map: “…in which map observe this: that as far as you see the little crosses on rivers, mountains, or other places, have been discovered; the rest was had by information of the savages, and are set down according to their instructions.”
Smith’s 1612 map shows 27 crosses. Can you find all 27? Read more about the crosses on Smith’s map.
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